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Publication numberUS20110036539 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 12/935,867
PCT numberPCT/FR2009/050549
Publication dateFeb 17, 2011
Filing dateMar 31, 2009
Priority dateApr 1, 2008
Also published asCA2720454A1, CA2720454C, EP2279381A2, WO2009125159A2, WO2009125159A3
Publication number12935867, 935867, PCT/2009/50549, PCT/FR/2009/050549, PCT/FR/2009/50549, PCT/FR/9/050549, PCT/FR/9/50549, PCT/FR2009/050549, PCT/FR2009/50549, PCT/FR2009050549, PCT/FR200950549, PCT/FR9/050549, PCT/FR9/50549, PCT/FR9050549, PCT/FR950549, US 2011/0036539 A1, US 2011/036539 A1, US 20110036539 A1, US 20110036539A1, US 2011036539 A1, US 2011036539A1, US-A1-20110036539, US-A1-2011036539, US2011/0036539A1, US2011/036539A1, US20110036539 A1, US20110036539A1, US2011036539 A1, US2011036539A1
InventorsXavier Balduini, Jean Maillard
Original AssigneeOpaly
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Method and device for trimming for facade or roof of a building
US 20110036539 A1
Abstract
The invention relates to a hollow panel being fixed to the structure of a building, and reactive to thermal radiation, namely solar radiation, including, between a first face being oriented towards a first environment and a second face being oriented towards a second environment, at least one internal fluid-circulation channel, namely air channel, extending between a first opening located at a first end edge and a second opening located at a second end edge, the internal channel extending between at least a perforated first receiver being exposed to thermal radiation on the side of first face and at least a second air-tight receiver on the side of second face and formed by a condenser, wherein the first receiver and the condenser are formed of a flexible web, namely textile web.
Images(9)
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Claims(16)
1-20. (canceled)
21. Hollow panel being fixed to a structure of a building, and reactive to thermal radiation, comprising: at least one internal fluid-circulation channel, namely air channel, between a first face being oriented towards a first environment and a second face being oriented towards a second environment and extending between a first opening located at a first end edge and a second opening located at a second end edge, the internal channel extending between at least a perforated first receiver being exposed to thermal radiation on the side of said first face and at least a second air-tight receiver on the side of said second face and formed by a condenser, wherein said first receiver and the condenser are comprised of a flexible web.
22. Panel according to claim 21, wherein the condenser comprises a thermal/exchange means or energy accumulating means or a reflecting mean or an insulating means or a combination thereof.
23. Panel according to claim 22, further comprising: an insulating means between the reflecting means and said second face.
24. Panel according to claim 21, wherein the first receiver or the second receiver can receive a coating comprised of nano-scale titanium oxide TiO2, or another catalyst capable of promoting the transformation of the so-called COV volatile organic compounds into inoffensive elements, or also CO into CO2, or NO into NO2.
25. Panel according to claim 21, further comprising: at least one skew opening, between said channel and said second face, which is so dimensioned as to permit the passing through of a portion smaller than the flow rate of the fluid circulating in said channel.
26. Panel according to claim 21, further comprising: a first strip at a first end edge, respectively, a second strip at a second end edge, respectively, and a first bearing and guiding means, respectively and a second bearing and guiding means permitting its assembling through piling with another hollow panel, and a bearing and tightness surface, respectively, for tightly juxtaposing the first opening, respectively the second opening, of said panel, with said second opening, respectively said first opening, of an adjacent panel.
27. Panel according to claim 26, further comprising: a four-sided peripheral structure, serving as a bearing surface for said first face and second face, wherein said first strip and said second strip are united, at the level of their ends, by a first and a second side cross strip, and wherein said first strip, respectively said second strip, comprises a first bearing surface, respectively a second bearing surface, cooperating with hoop means for closing or/and fixing said peripheral structure.
28. Panel according to claim 21, wherein the condenser is mounted in a substantially vertical plane, the condenser comprising: a volume profile, on a first face being oriented towards the solar radiation and maximizing drop shadow of the sun in summer under strong incidences with respect to the normal line of said second receiver, and of minimizing the drop shadow of the sun in winter under weak incidences with respect to the normal line of said condenser.
29. Panel according to claim 28, wherein said volume profile comprises a staggered juxtaposition of volumes in the shape of half water droplets the bulbous portion of which is arranged on the side of the floor.
30. Panel according to claim 28, further comprising: an energy accumulating means, on a second face opposite the first face, the energy accumulating means being comprised of a honeycomb structure containing an accumulating or/and phase-changing material.
31. Panel according to claim 21, further comprising: a means for fixing and tensioning, resting on a first bearing surface and a second bearing surface located on both sides of an intermediate surface, a flexible web forming the first receiver and/or the condenser.
32. Panel according to claim 21, wherein the intermediate surface is plain.
33. Panel according to claim 31, wherein said means comprises at least one first rod and at least one second rod, each immobilizing said flexible web at a first end edge, respectively at a second end edge, said means comprising: a first groove, at the level of a first strip, extending in a substantially longitudinal first direction, and a second groove at the level of a second strip, extending in a substantially longitudinal second direction, said first groove and second groove being each designed capable of receiving over full length said first rod or said second rod.
34. Panel according to claim 21, further comprising: a means for fixing and tensioning a flexible web forming the first receiver and/or the condenser in the form of a deformable frame, being comprised of two end reinforcement, each reinforcement bearing one end of said flexible web, each of these end reinforcements cooperating, at each of its ends, with an elastically deformable side reinforcement cooperating with a bearing surface of a guide, for straightening and increasing the tension of said flexible web.
35. Panel according to claim 21, wherein a translucent panel such as a glazed, polycarbonate panel or the like is arranged externally to the perforated first receiver.
Description
    RELATED U.S. APPLICATIONS
  • [0001]
    Not applicable.
  • STATEMENT REGARDING FEDERALLY SPONSORED RESEARCH OR DEVELOPMENT
  • [0002]
    Not applicable.
  • REFERENCE TO MICROFICHE APPENDIX
  • [0003]
    Not applicable.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • [0004]
    1. Field of the Invention
  • [0005]
    The invention relates to a method for cladding a frontage or roof of a building, according to which at least one perforated first receiver is arranged at a distance of a second receiver applied against the structure of said building or formed by said structure, so as to preserve between said second receiver and said perforated first receiver closest to the latter an air-circulation channel.
  • [0006]
    The invention also relates to a hollow panel designed capable of being fixed to the structure of a building, and reactive to thermal radiation, namely solar radiation, including, between a first face designed capable of being oriented towards a first environment and a second face designed capable of being oriented towards a second environment, at least one internal fluid-circulation channel, namely air channel, extending between a first opening located at a first end edge and a second opening located at a second end edge, said internal channel extending between, on the one hand, at least a perforated first receiver designed capable of being exposed to thermal radiation on the side of said first face and, on the other hand, at least a second air-tight receiver on the side of said second face.
  • [0007]
    The invention also relates to a condenser designed capable of forming said second receiver.
  • [0008]
    The invention also relates to a device for fixing and tensioning said first receptor.
  • [0009]
    The present invention falls within the building sector, both for new construction and for renovation.
  • [0010]
    The invention relates in particular to the external paneling for, for frontage or roof, and in particular the search for optimizing the energy relationship between the inside and the outside of the building.
  • [0011]
    2. Description of Related Art Including Information Disclosed Under 37 CFR 1.97 and 37 CFR 1.98.
  • [0012]
    Energy saving is the main concern of the building designers. The use of natural resources, such as solar energy, is known, essentially in the form of electric-energy producing photovoltaic panels, or in the form of solar panels with water circulation.
  • [0013]
    Most applications of this type relate to roof equipment, and most often on the roof, which results into the necessity to reinforce the framework, high costs and a poor esthetical appearance.
  • [0014]
    Few installations use vertical frontage surfaces. Now, though their orientation with respect to the sun rays may prove less favorable than an inclined roof, the developed area of the frontages oriented towards the sun is large and under-utilized.
  • [0015]
    The aim of the invention is to cope with the drawbacks of the state of the art by proposing to incorporate functionalities, namely energy functionalities, through implementing a method for cladding a frontage or covering a building permitting to replace the skin of a building or to line it, this method implementing reversible elements easy to be assembled and integrating particular energy receivers and collectors, so as to form an active device easily accessible for maintenance and capable of exerting a regulating action on the temperature inside a building, so as to permit an important energy saving.
  • [0016]
    The invention is aimed in particular at improving the thermal efficiency of a frontage or roof cladding and at adapting same to the parameters of its environment, namely the seasonal and weather parameters. This adapting should be achievable through an easy exchange of removable components of a low unit cost.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • [0017]
    To this end, the invention relates to a hollow panel designed capable of being fixed to the structure of a building, and reactive to thermal radiation, namely solar radiation, including, between a first face designed capable of being oriented towards a first environment and a second face designed capable of being oriented towards a second environment, at least one internal fluid-circulation channel, namely air channel, extending between a first opening located at a first end edge and a second opening located at a second end edge, said internal channel extending between, on the one hand, at least a perforated first receiver designed capable of being exposed to thermal radiation on the side of said first face and, on the other hand, at least a second air-tight receiver on the side of said second face and formed by a condenser, the first receiver and the condenser being formed by a flexible web, namely textile web.
  • [0018]
    According to a feature of the invention, said perforated first receiver is incorporated into a hollow panel designed capable of being incorporated into an external cladding device formed by juxtaposing such panels.
  • [0019]
    According to another feature of the invention, said perforated first receiver is chosen flexible, and it is tensioned applied in front of said frontage or cover by means of at least one device for fixing and tensioning a flexible web incorporated into said perforated first receiver, or forming same.
  • [0020]
    The invention also relates to a hollow panel designed capable of being fixed to the structure of a building, and reactive to thermal radiation, namely solar radiation, including, between a first face designed capable of being oriented towards a first environment and a second face designed capable of being oriented towards a second environment, at least one internal fluid-circulation channel, namely air channel, extending between a first opening located at a first end edge and a second opening located at a second end edge, said internal channel extending between, on the one hand, at least a perforated first receiver designed capable of being exposed to thermal radiation on the side of said first face and, on the other hand, at least a second air-tight receiver on the side of said second face.
  • [0021]
    The invention also relates to a condenser (110) designed capable of forming such a second receiver.
  • [0022]
    The invention also relates to a such a device for fixing and tensioning such a flexible web.
  • [0023]
    The invention also relates to a condenser for a panel reactive to thermal radiation, namely solar radiation.
  • [0024]
    The invention permits to change both the external appearance and the thermal performances of a building, for the staff's security and for an easy and cost-effective implementation.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • [0025]
    Further features and advantages of the invention will become clear from the following detailed description of non-restrictive embodiments of the invention, when referring to the attached figures.
  • [0026]
    FIG. 1 is a schematic, partial and perspective view of a cladding device formed of several panels according to the invention, shown separated in order to facilitate the understanding.
  • [0027]
    FIG. 2 is a view similar to FIG. 1, seen from the side in the direction X.
  • [0028]
    FIG. 3 is a schematic, partial and cross-sectional view of a set of panels according to the invention, installed inside a building, and of the associated air flows.
  • [0029]
    FIG. 4 is a schematic, partial and cross-sectional view of a panel according to the invention.
  • [0030]
    FIG. 5 is a schematic and cross-sectional view of a panel according to the invention, and the various air flows in this panel.
  • [0031]
    FIG. 6 is a schematic and perspective view of the structure of a panel according to the invention.
  • [0032]
    FIG. 7 is a schematic, partial and perspective view of a cladding device formed of several panels according to the invention.
  • [0033]
    FIG. 8 is a schematic and perspective view of a first face, the structure of a condenser forming a second receiver in a preferred embodiment of the invention.
  • [0034]
    FIG. 9 is a schematic and perspective view of the structure of FIG. 8, at the level of the face opposite the previous one.
  • [0035]
    FIG. 10 is a schematic, partial and cross-sectional view of a variant of FIG. 4.
  • [0036]
    FIG. 11 is a schematic and perspective view of a panel according to the invention, with a mounted flexible web.
  • [0037]
    FIG. 12 is a schematic, partial and perspective view of part of the means for tensioning a flexible web according to the invention.
  • [0038]
    FIG. 13 is a schematic, partial and perspective view of a zone for inserting a flexible web into a panel according to the invention.
  • [0039]
    FIG. 14 is similar to FIG. 13, according to another angle.
  • [0040]
    FIG. 15 is a schematic, partial and perspective view of a variant of this insertion zone.
  • [0041]
    FIG. 16 is a schematic, partial and front view of the insertion zone of FIGS. 13 and 14.
  • [0042]
    FIG. 17 is a schematic, partial and top view according to a line normal to a flat surface of a variant of the panel according to the invention, with a mounted flexible web.
  • [0043]
    FIG. 18 is a schematic and vertical cross-sectional view of a device for cladding a frontage in a particular embodiment of the invention.
  • [0044]
    FIG. 19 is a schematic and horizontal cross-sectional view according to CC of a variant embodiment of FIG. 18.
  • [0045]
    FIG. 20 is a view similar to FIG. 19 of another variant embodiment;
  • [0046]
    FIG. 21 is a schematic and elevational view of an assembling of translucent panels the embodiment of FIG. 18 includes.
  • [0047]
    FIG. 22 is a schematic and elevational view of tools for placing the flexible web the embodiment of FIG. 18 includes.
  • [0048]
    FIG. 23 illustrates another variant of placing and tensioning of such a flexible web.
  • [0049]
    FIGS. 24 through 27 illustrate yet another variant of placing and tensioning such a flexible web, FIG. 24 in a partially perspective view, FIG. 25 in an elevational view, and FIGS. 26 and 27 in a side view from the plane of the flexible web.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • [0050]
    Referring According to a method for cladding a frontage or covering a building, at least a perforated first receiver 50 is arranged at a distance from a second receiver 51 applied onto the structure of said building or formed by said structure, so as to preserve, between said second receiver 51 and said perforated first receiver 50 closest to the latter, an air-circulation channel 3, wherein such a perforated first receiver 50 is chosen removable and including a flexible web 203 or formed by such a flexible web 203.
  • [0051]
    In a first embodiment, as can be seen in FIGS. 1 through 7, the perforated first receiver 50 is incorporated into a panel 1. The invention then permits cladding the frontage or covering the building through the construction of an external cladding device 100 formed by the juxtaposition of panels 1.
  • [0052]
    In a second embodiment, as can be seen in FIGS. 10 through 17, the perforated first receiver 50 is flexible, and is tensioned applied against the front of the structure or the cover, or the existing cladding of the building, by means of at least one device 201 for securing and tensioning a flexible web 203 incorporated into the perforated first receiver 50, or forming same.
  • [0053]
    The second embodiment can be combined with the first one, the device 201 being arranged either so as to cover the surface formed by an assembling of panels 1, or to cover the surface of one panel 1, the cladding device 100 then including as many devices 201 as there are panels 1.
  • [0054]
    In the first embodiment, the panel 1 is hollow. This panel 1 is designed capable of being fixed to the structure of a building, and is reactive to thermal radiation, in particular to solar radiation, facing which it is aimed at being placed. The external device 100 for cladding a building, on the frontage or the roof, includes a set of hollow panels 1. The latter are preferably substantially flat or have all an identical curvature. In particular, they can adopt the shape of parallelepipeds, or also prisms according to a cylindrical sector, with a constant curvature radius. These hollow panels 1 can be piled according to a direction Z, preferably vertical direction.
  • [0055]
    This panel 1 includes a first face 2 designed capable of being oriented towards a first environment A, in particular the outer side of a building or a warm source, and a second face 10 designed capable of being oriented towards a second environment B, in particular the inner side of a building or a zone to be heated.
  • [0056]
    Depending on the shape of the structure of the building to be provided with such panels 1, different configurations are possible as to the geometry of this first face 2. In the most usual embodiment, the first face 2 is flat. The first face 2 can also have a constant curvature in at least one direction. In a variant, the first face 2 has a first constant curvature in a first direction, and a second constant curvature in a second direction orthogonal to said first direction, whereby this first curvature and this second curvature can have identical or different values.
  • [0057]
    In its most usual embodiment, the panel 1 has a parallelepipedal shape.
  • [0058]
    The panel 1 includes, between its first face 2 and its second face 10, at least one internal fluid-circulation channel 3, namely air channel. This channel 3 extends between a first opening 5 located at a first end edge 4 of the panel 1, and a second opening 7 located at a second end edge 6. Preferably, this first opening 5 and this second opening 7 are located one above the other, or vice-versa.
  • [0059]
    According to the invention, the internal channel 3 extends between, on the one hand, at least a perforated first receiver 50 designed capable of being exposed to thermal radiation on the side of the first face 2 and, on the other hand, at least a second air-tight receiver 51 on the side of said second face 10.
  • [0060]
    In a particular application preferred within the framework of the invention, the perforated receiving panel 50 forms itself the first face 2.
  • [0061]
    The perforated first receiver 50 is designed capable of transforming thermal radiation, namely of solar origin, through reflection or/and transmission or/and absorption.
  • [0062]
    This first receiver 50 stops a first portion of the radiation of the heat source, in particular solar heat, namely through reflection, and, thanks to its perforation, lets pass a second portion to the second receiver 51. The first receiver 50 can absorb part of the heat, and heat up, the transmission of energy to the second receiver 51 thus occurs in the channel 3, either by direct passing through or by radiation from the first receiver 50 towards the second receiver 51. If the latter reflects part of the energy, the first receiver 50 forms a barrier impeding the return. The essential portion of the energy received from the first environment A thus remains in the channel 3.
  • [0063]
    One understands that the notion of perforation should be taken in a broad meaning, the perforation permits the passing through of a certain quantity of air, at the same time as part of the thermal radiation. The perforation of the first receiver 1 can indifferently be formed by drilled holes, cuts, orifices, spaces between the strands of a non-woven textile cloth, spaces between the weft and de warp threads of a textile cloth or a woven, metal or plastic mesh, or the like.
  • [0064]
    Preferably and advantageously, the first receiver 50 is removable, and can be adapted for example according to the weather conditions, namely seasonal conditions, and the panel 1 includes recesses for its positioning and its fixing.
  • [0065]
    In an advantageous embodiment, the first receiver 50 includes, in its thickness, through openings that are designed capable of permitting the direct passing of the light rays up to a given incidence with respect to the normal line to the spot considered, and to impede same beyond said incidence. One understands that, if the first receiver 50 extends in a substantially vertical direction, for a use facing the solar radiation, these through openings permit the passing through of the solar radiation in winter, low above the horizon, in a context in which one tries to use its energy to heat up an inner volume, while, on the other hand, they are a hindrance for the solar radiation in summer, close to the zenith, and limit the penetration of the solar energy into the panel.
  • [0066]
    In a variant embodiment, the first receiver 50 includes protruding volumes designed capable of conveying the air to the channel 3. Preferably, these protruding elements are set back with respect to the first face 2 towards the interior of the panel 1, so as not to catch neither the clothes of the people passing by nor the elements suspended in the air such as dead leaves or similar.
  • [0067]
    These protruding elements form an air sleeve, and can be namely in the form of a tubular bend, of a spherical dome or the like. This sleeve includes an opening, which can be oriented towards the floor, in order to avoid filling the panel with rain water. It can also be oriented otherwise, namely so as to avoid the introduction of dust. Preferably, the panel 1, or/and the structure 100, includes means for collecting and evacuating rain water and eventual condensates.
  • [0068]
    Preferably, the first receiver 50 is formed of a tensioned flexible web 203, namely textile web. This configuration offers the advantage of an extremely low weight and a very easy exchange. Preferably, the recesses the panel 1 includes for its positioning and its fixing are accessible in situ, without requiring the complete removal of the panel 1.
  • [0069]
    Advantageously, the first receiver 50, or/and the second receiver 51, includes, on at least one of its faces, a coating by means of a silkscreen process, printing or the like. This coating can namely be chosen reflecting, for determined wavelengths, according to the season or/and the weather conditions.
  • [0070]
    For applications of decontamination of the air circulating through the channel 3 of the panel 1, the first receiver 50 or the second receiver 51 can receive a coating including nano-scale titanium oxide TiO2, or another catalyst also designed capable of enhancing the transformation of the so-called COV volatile organic compounds into inoffensive elements, or also of CO into CO2, or of NO into NO2.
  • [0071]
    Besides the technical functions specific to the first receiver 50 set forth above, this receiver can receive a particular decoration, which is particularly easy when it is formed of a woven and/or printed and or silkscreen printed textile web. In addition to the possibility of varying at a low cost the appearance of the building wall comes the possibility of integrating into same visual safety messages, or also advertising messages. The application of camouflage decorations for military applications or for implantations in protected areas is very easy, the more that the panel 1 according to the invention does not require any external panes, even though it is possible to install some at the level of the first face 2.
  • [0072]
    In a first variant embodiment, the first perforated receiving means 50 is intercalated between the channel 3 and the first face 2.
  • [0073]
    In another variant embodiment, the first perforated receiving means 50 is applied onto the first face 2 outside the panel 1.
  • [0074]
    In another variant embodiment, the first receiver 50 is translucent. It can also be formed of a plate, and namely of a translucent plate. It can be formed of a translucent and perforated flexible film.
  • [0075]
    In yet another variant embodiment, the first receiver 50 includes at least one surface treated by sand blowing or chemical attack. This treatment by sand blowing or chemical attack can be applied irrespective of the configuration of the first receiver, even textile receiver, and results into increasing the exchange surface.
  • [0076]
    This channel 3 is designed capable of communicating, at the level of the first opening 5 or/and the second opening 7, with an internal channel 3 of another hollow panel 1 of the same type, or also with means for communicating between the airstream formed by the channel 3 and the volume of a part, which may be formed of deflectors or the like. It is thus possible to build, based on panels 1, a partition with a vertical component including a continuous channel over its full height, in particular for the air circulation. Such a piling results, as a consequence of the increase of the height of the wall, into increasing the convective effect.
  • [0077]
    The panel 1 can be carried out in various variants; in particular, the channel 3 can be designed capable of communicating, on the one hand, with the first environment A through at least a first communication external opening 8 or/and, on the other hand, with the second environment B through at least a first internal communication opening 9.
  • [0078]
    In an advantageous embodiment of the invention, the hollow panels 1 can also be juxtaposed to each other in a direction X perpendicular to the vertical direction Z and the tangent to the first faces 2 of the panels 1.
  • [0079]
    This tangential, or lateral, juxtaposition permits, by increasing the width of the wall, to increase the flow rate of the fluid, namely air, circulating inside the panels.
  • [0080]
    In another embodiment of the invention, the panels 1 can also be juxtaposed, in another direction Y perpendicular to both the vertical direction Z and the direction X, with other panels 1 of the same type or with second insulation panels 101. In this case, the insulation panels 101 can each include at least one through opening 11, which is designed capable of being juxtaposed to a first internal communication opening 9 of a panel 1 if the latter includes some. Of course, an insulating panel 101 can include as many openings, in the extension of the latter, as the panel 1 to which it is adjacent, as can be seen in FIGS. 1 and 2.
  • [0081]
    One understands that the juxtaposition of insulating panels, over the thickness of an external building wall, permits to increase the thermal inertia of this wall.
  • [0082]
    Preferably, the channel 3 includes at a first end edge 4 a first so-called external communication opening 8 towards the first environment A and a first so-called internal communication opening 9 towards the second environment B. Likewise, it includes at the second end edge 6 a second so-called external communication opening 13 towards the first environment A and a second so-called internal communication opening 14 towards the second environment B.
  • [0083]
    In an advantageous variant for a home-automation treatment, at least one of the internal 9 or/and 14, or/and external openings 8 or/and 13, the channel 3 includes is designed capable of being closed, namely by closing means controlled by driving means.
  • [0084]
    Any panel 1 can include all or part, even no side openings, but should include the channel 3.
  • [0085]
    A panel 1, or a piling of such panels 1, including such lower and upper openings towards the first environment A and the second environment B can advantageously be used, as can be seen in FIG. 5, depending on the openings one uses, depending on the weather, hour conditions, and the temperature differentials between the first so-called external environment A and the second so-called internal environment B. The occultation of the openings 9 and 14 promotes an external-external flow 40. The occultation of the openings 9 and 13 promotes an external-internal flow 41. The occultation of the openings 8 and 13 promotes an internal-internal flow 42. The occultation of the openings 8 and 14 promotes an internal-external flow 40.
  • [0086]
    One thus understands that it is thus possible, depending on the circumstances, to regulate the temperature of an internal environment B.
  • [0087]
    The piling of the panels 1 permits to form a column of a large height, compared to that of each panel, which permits to ensure a certain draught, thus an air renewal at a large flow rate inside the internal environment B. One aim of the invention is to permit to obtain a large temperature differential between the air flowing in at the lower portion of the piling of panels 1, and the air flowing out at the upper portion of this piling.
  • [0088]
    Preferably, on at least one panel 1 reactive to solar radiation is integrated into a cladding device 100, which can then be used as an energy regulator for the environment B internal to the building.
  • [0089]
    As can be seen in FIG. 3, in a particular arrangement, at least one panel 1 includes at least one skew opening 15 between the channel 3 and the second face 10, preferably arranged ascending obliquely towards the internal environment B, and which is so dimensioned as to permit the passing through of a portion smaller than a certain portion of the flow rate of the fluid circulating in the channel 3, in particular smaller than 25%. This opening 15 permits to generate an ascending air stream 44 in the environment B, flowing alongside the wall formed by the piling or/and the juxtaposition of panels 1, 1A, 1B, 1C, at the level of a second face 10 these panels include. This ascending air stream 44 draws the air located in the vicinity of the floor 48, and creates a destratification flow 45. In the upper portion of the room, a substantially horizontal partition 46 can be provided between the volume of the environment B and the area of outflow, through the upper internal opening 14C of the panel 1C located in the upper position, of an air flow 49 circulating in the channel 3 common to the panels 1, 1A, 1B, 1C. This partition 46 brings the flow 45 and the flow 49 back at the level of a mouthpiece 47 where their junction occurs, and which tends to send back to the floor 48 a flow 90.
  • [0090]
    One understands that, as can be seen in FIGS. 1 and 2, in the event one or several insulation panels 101 are applied, on the side of the second internal environment B, against a panel 1, they also include oblique openings 15A in the extension of such an oblique opening 15. Of course, this oblique opening 15 can have a double function, namely serve as a second opening 14.
  • [0091]
    Preferably, the hollow panel 1 includes, at its first end edge 4, respectively at its second end edge 6, a first strip 16, respectively a second strip 17, including first bearing and guiding means 18, respectively second bearing and guiding means 19, designed capable of permitting its assembling through piling with another hollow panel 1 of the same type. This strip 16, respectively 17, includes a bearing and tightness surface 20, respectively 21, for tightly juxtaposing the first opening 5, respectively the second opening 7, of the panel 1, with the second opening 7, respectively the first opening 5, of an adjacent panel 1, as can be seen in FIG. 3, at the junction between the second opening 7A of the panel 1A, and the first opening 5B of the panel 1B.
  • [0092]
    The first bearing and guiding means 18 and the second ones 19 can advantageously be made either of a profile complementary to each other or of a profile identical to each other. In the latter case, this profile is designed capable of cooperating with a complementary profile a wall rail fixed to the structure of a building, to which the panel 1 is fixed, includes. The positioning, bearing and guiding are then carried out by such a wall rail. In the case of juxtaposition of panels 1, these are mounted on both sides of such wall rails. Advantageously, the fixing of the panels to such a connecting part incorporates a function of locking in position. One can also imagine the case in which this wall rail includes different profiles on both sides in order to distinguish for example lower supports and upper supports and to form a positioning guide for the mounting of panels, whereby the latter must then include a lower profile different from an upper profile, as regards the first and second bearing and guiding means 18 and 19. However, in order to rationalize the components and to lower the costs, these profiles are preferably identical to each other.
  • [0093]
    In an advantageous embodiment, the first strip 16, respectively the second strip 17, includes a first bearing surface 22, respectively a second bearing surface 23, which is designed capable of cooperating with hoop means 80 for closing or/and fixing the panel 1, in particular for closing or/and fixing a peripheral structure 55 forming a structure frame of the panel 1, to which the first face 2 and the second face 10 are fixed. Indeed, such a panel 1 can include several removable elements, namely the first receiver 50.
  • [0094]
    It is then interesting, in a particular version including extractable panels 1, to be able, after an at least partial extraction of the panel 1 from the assembly it is part of, to remove an element and to replace it by another one.
  • [0095]
    This permits, indeed, a change of utilization of the panel 1 during its life. In order to facilitate this intervention, which is preferably performed in situ, the panel 1 includes a removable structure, including the first strip 16 and the second strip 17, as well as eventual side strips referred to as first 53 and second 54 cross strips, on side faces 33 and 34, on both sides of the second face 10 and of the first face 2, which preferably form the largest surfaces of the panel 1. The connection of these strips and these cross strips is advantageously carried out by means of one or several straps 80 tensioned at the periphery of the panel 1. The bearing surfaces 22 and 23 are preferably grooves designed capable of receiving the strap or straps 80, either directly or through elastic materials. Means for tensioning the strap, namely by means of an eccentric, are advantageously integrated directly into the panel 1, at the level of one of its strips or of its eventual side cross strips.
  • [0096]
    In the usual case in which the panel 1 includes, serving as a support for the first face 2 and the second face 10, a four-side peripheral structure 55, the first strip 16 and the second strip 17 are united, at the level of their ends, by a first 53 and a second 54 side cross strip, connecting at first ends and at second ends, respectively, the first end edge 4 to the second end edge 6. A side cross strip 53, respectively 54, can include a first side opening 35, respectively a second side opening 36. In a particular embodiment, each side cross strip 53, 54 includes a side opening 35, 36.
  • [0097]
    It should be noted that the panel 1 does not always include side cross strips. Indeed, in a common application for treating a frontage or a roof over a full width, the channel 3 can be designed capable of communicating, at the level of at least one side face 33, 34, substantially perpendicular to the first end edge 4 or the second end edge 6, through a side opening 35, with a side opening another panel 1 of the same type includes, for its putting into communication with an internal channel 3 of this other panel 1. This side opening 35 can, as can be seen in FIG. 1, occupy the whole of the side face of a panel 1.
  • [0098]
    In order to be able to exert an action on the flow of the fluid, namely air, passing through the channel 3, and to transform, or reject, according to user's choice, the energy of solar origin, the hollow panel 1 preferably includes, between the channel 3 and a second face 10 designed capable of being oriented towards the second so-called internal environment B, and arranged in this order starting from the channel 3, thermal exchange means 28, energy accumulating means 29, reflecting means 30. This panel 1 is also capable of containing, between the reflecting means 30 and the second face 10, insulating means 31.
  • [0099]
    The second receiver 51 is formed of all or part of these thermal exchange means 28, energy accumulating means 29, reflecting means 30, insulating means 31.
  • [0100]
    Preferably, the thermal exchange means 28 are formed of the second receiver 51, or incorporated into the latter.
  • [0101]
    Advantageously, the second receiver 51 is mounted in a substantially vertical plane and includes, oriented towards the first face 2, a volume profile, which is designed capable of maximizing the drop shadow from the sun in summer under strong incidences with respect to the normal line of the second receiver 51, and to minimize the drop shadow from the sun in winter under low incidences with respect to the normal line of the second receiver 51.
  • [0102]
    Preferably, this second receiver 51 is formed of a condenser 110. The latter can also form thermal exchange means 28, or/and energy accumulating means 29, or/and reflecting means 30, or/and insulating means 31. In a preferred version, this condenser 110 is flexible.
  • [0103]
    This condenser 110 includes a first face 112 designed capable of being oriented towards thermal radiation, in particular the outer side of a building or a heat source, and in particular the solar radiation.
  • [0104]
    This condenser 110 is preferably air-tight.
  • [0105]
    It is also designed capable of reflecting part of the energy.
  • [0106]
    Preferably and advantageously, the condenser 110 is removable, and can be adapted for example according to the weather conditions, and the panel 1 includes recesses for its positioning and its fixing.
  • [0107]
    Preferably, the condenser 110 is formed of a tensioned textile web 203, with the same coating and decoration possibilities as the first receiver 50. This configuration has the advantage of an extremely low weight, and a very easy replacement.
  • [0108]
    For applications of decontamination of the air circulating along its first face 112, the condenser 110 can receive a coating including nano-scale titanium oxide TiO2, or another catalyst also designed capable of enhancing the transformation of the so-called COV volatile organic compounds into inoffensive elements, or also of CO into CO2, or of NO into NO2.
  • [0109]
    In a variant embodiment, the condenser 110 is translucent. It can also be formed of a plate, and namely of a translucent plate.
  • [0110]
    In yet another variant embodiment, the condenser 110 includes at least one surface treated by sand blowing or chemical attack. This treatment by sand blowing or chemical attack can be applied irrespective of the configuration of the condenser 110, even textile condenser, and results into increasing the exchange surface.
  • [0111]
    In order to be able to exert an action on the flow of the fluid, namely air, alongside the first face 112 of the condenser 110, and to transform, or reject, according to user's choice, the energy of solar origin, the condenser 110 can include, between its first face 112 and a second face 112A opposite the latter, and arranged in this order starting from the first face 112, thermal exchange means 28, energy accumulating means 29, reflecting means 30. This condenser 110 is also capable of containing, between the reflecting means 30 and the second face 112A, insulating means 31.
  • [0112]
    The condenser 110 is formed of all or part of these thermal exchange means 28, energy accumulating means 29, reflecting means 30, insulating means 31.
  • [0113]
    Advantageously, the condenser 110 is mounted in a substantially vertical plane and includes, oriented towards the first face 112, a volume profile 113, which is designed capable of maximizing the drop shadow from the sun in summer under strong incidences with respect to the normal line of the condenser 110, and to minimize the drop shadow from the sun in winter under low incidences with respect to the normal line of said second receiver.
  • [0114]
    Preferably, this volume profile 113 includes staggered juxtaposition of volumes 32 in the shape of half water drops the bulbous portion of which is arranged on the side of the floor, as can be seen in FIG. 8.
  • [0115]
    In a cheap variant embodiment, the condenser 110 is flexible, and can namely be formed of a volume-shaped textile. This configuration is interesting if the channel 3 or the panel 1 is a large-size one, the condenser 110 can be prepared in the form of a reel-wound meters-long web, and unwound according to the use; this avoids the manufacturing of large-size rigid condensers, which are more expensive or/and more difficult to be made.
  • [0116]
    Preferably, the energy accumulating means 29 include a honeycomb structure 37 designed capable of containing an accumulating or/and phase-changing material, as can be seen in FIG. 9.
  • [0117]
    In an alternative, the condenser 110 is made in the form of a deformed plate that includes, on its face facing the second face 112A and opposite the first face 112, these energy accumulating means 29. This configuration permits a reduction of the number of components and permits an important weight reduction, in particular when the condenser 110 is made out of plastic.
  • [0118]
    Besides the classical thermal aspect, the invention can also ensure cooling functions.
  • [0119]
    The thermal-energy regulation can also be complemented with a hygrometry regulation between different environments A and B. The condenser 110 can then namely be equipped with water circulations, namely through running, or/and with communications between water tanks and dryers or humidifiers, as the case may be.
  • [0120]
    If a very rigid configuration is looked for, the second receiver 51 is provided, on its face oriented towards the first face 2, with volumes in the shape of half water droplets 32 and, on its opposite face, with honeycombs 37, so that the meshes of these respective profiles on the opposite faces are staggered with respect to each other.
  • [0121]
    In a configuration in which all the panels include such insulating means 31, each of the elements the cladding device 1 according to the invention is comprised of can be considered as being insulating.
  • [0122]
    In a most common application, the first end edge 4 is parallel to and opposite the second end edge 6. Likewise, in a preferred application, the panel 1 has the shape of a rectangular prism, namely of a parallelepiped.
  • [0123]
    In a variant embodiment, a panel can be fully open on a full side, i.e. of its first face 2 or its second face 10, the channel 3 is then in full communication with the atmosphere of one of its environments A or B.
  • [0124]
    Preferably, the dimensions of a panel 1 for two dimensions, referred to as width and height, X and Z according to the example of FIG. 1, are large compared to the third one, referred to as thickness, according to Y in the same example, i.e. each at least five times larger than said thickness. The flow of the fluid, preferably air, circulating in the channel 3, is then like a web.
  • [0125]
    Preferably, the panels 1 or 101 are designed with dimensions and a mass, namely lower than 25 kg, permitting their handling by one man with the force of his arms. The dimensions of 1500×1000×175 mm are particularly well-suited for the described applications and permit to maintain this mass limit, when the manufacture of the strips, faces and cross strips results from the implementation of plastic materials such as PVC, PA or the like.
  • [0126]
    Preferably, the panels 1 according to the invention are juxtaposed so as to form a cladding device 100 for a building, on the frontage or on the roof, including at least two panels 1 with an identical curvature between them, which can be piled up in a vertical direction Z, the channels 3 of which are communicating. These panels 1 can also be juxtaposed to each other in a direction X perpendicular to the vertical direction Z and tangent to the first faces 2 of the panels 1, which can also be juxtaposed, in another direction Y perpendicular to both the vertical direction Z and the direction X, with other panels 1 of the same type or with insulation panels 101. When such an insulating panel 101 is juxtaposed to an internal communication opening 9 or 14 of a panel 1, then it includes at least one through opening 11 designed capable of being juxtaposed with this opening.
  • [0127]
    In brief, the invention permits to create an air volume with a convective flow over a full cladding surface, namely of a frontage or of a roof of a building, by means of juxtaposed or/and piled elements, namely each having a mass smaller than 25 kg and dimensions smaller than or equal to 1500×1000×200 mm, facilitating and reducing the costs of transport and placing.
  • [0128]
    The cladding device 100 formed of panels 1 according to the invention thus permits to achieve at a lesser cost the same convective performances as an outer wall that would be built of one single piece, thus of a difficult and expensive elaboration, requiring highly qualified staff.
  • [0129]
    The device according to the invention is also evolutionary, and permits to change, by permutation or/and removal or/and addition of panels, the technical or/and esthetical functionalities of a frontage or a roof.
  • [0130]
    Of course, the invention is described preferably for the external cover of a building, because of the naturally large temperature differential between the first external environment A and the second internal environment B. One understands that the invention is applicable to the manufacture of any wall, even internal to a building, between two environments A and B with different thermal characteristics, for example between offices and factory halls.
  • [0131]
    Besides the classical thermal aspect, the invention can also ensure cooling functions.
  • [0132]
    The thermal-energy regulation can also be complemented with a hygrometry regulation between different environments A and B. The channel 3 can then namely be equipped with water circulations, namely through running, or/and with communications between water tanks and dryers or humidifiers, as the case may be.
  • [0133]
    The invention also relates, according to a second embodiment, which may be combined with the first embodiment, to a device for fixing and tensioning a flexible web 203. The latter is designed capable of forming a perforated first receiver 50, or also designed capable of forming a second receiver 51, in the event the latter is chosen as being flexible. This flexible web 203 can thus have a technical function, such as absorption, reflection, filtering, protection, or/and a decorative function with decoration bearing media or the like. In addition to a preferred use as a perforated first receiver 50 or/and a second receiver 51, such a flexible web 203 can thus also be used to form thermal exchange means 28, or/and energy accumulating means 29, or/and reflecting means 30, or/and insulating means 31.
  • [0134]
    The placing and replacement of such flexible webs generally requires a mechanism integrated into the panel, including reel holders, or/and an unwinder, and means for tensioning by actuating an eccentric bar or roll. Such mechanisms reserve the use of these flexible webs for fixed panels, with a high mass due to the mechanism they include.
  • [0135]
    From WO 03/100286 or WO 2006/063991 are also known alternative solutions without mechanism, in which a flexible web includes elastic peripheral piped seams cooperating with grooves a frame in which the web is mounted and tensioned includes, or is also caught by traditional means and tensioning by means of tensioning devices. However, the mounting of the flexible web requires some dexterity and is not well-suited for the particular conditions related to the equipping of frontage panels or at a high height, subjected to the action of the wind or weather conditions. In addition, the mounting time is long because of the difficulty of placing.
  • [0136]
    These solutions without mechanism in the panel also require maintaining the flexible web at the four sides, in the case of equipping rectangular panels.
  • [0137]
    The invention tries to use lightweight, easily and quickly removable materials, in order to bring new functionalities to a frontage or to an opening of a building: an appearance varying over the time, a thermal regulation of the temperature in the building, this as easily for both the renovation of a frontage or an existing opening, through overlaying of applied elements and for the construction of a new external cladding.
  • [0138]
    The fixing and tensioning of the flexible web 203 are performed resting on at least one first bearing surface 204 and one second bearing surface 205, which are located on both sides of an intermediate surface 202, namely a flat surface, in the vicinity of which the flexible web 203 is tensioned. Of course, these bearing surfaces 204 and 205, which are designed as end bearing surfaces of a length of the flexible web 203 unfolded at the level of this intermediate surface 202, are minimal bearing surfaces: the flexible web 203 can also be supported, or at least limited in its displacement, by intermediate bearing surfaces, not shown in the figures, and intercalated between the surfaces 204 and 205.
  • [0139]
    Though, in a preferred embodiment, the intermediate surface 202 is flat, other embodiments can of course be foreseen, according to which the flexible web 203 is tensioned according to a deformed shape, for example with bearing surfaces 204 and 205 extending in different directions, or/and being tensioned resting on intermediate bearing surfaces defining, at least partially, the cover of this deformed surface. It is thus possible to implement the invention for any construction topography, which permits all architectural fantasies, since the choice of a flexible web permits, as a matter of fact, a thorough adapting to the relief, at least as long as the surfaces remain involute. For particular areas including non-involute surfaces, the flexible web 203 can integrate ad hoc shaped surfaces, for example by molding or the like.
  • [0140]
    In particular, the device 201 according to the invention permits to tension the flexible web 203 as close as possible to the intermediate surface 202. One understands that this intermediate surface 202 can be either a plain surface, as can be seen in FIG. 15, or also, as can be seen in la FIG. 11, an opening delimited by a cut-out in a structure, in particular a flat structure if the intermediate surface 202 is chosen flat. In the latter case, the flexible web 203 fulfils a particular function of closing of the intermediate surface 202.
  • [0141]
    The invention permits to carry out a low-cost preparation of the flexible web 203 before its placing. In particular, this preparation is related to the previous equipment with two opposite end edges. To this end, the device 201 includes at least one first rod 210 and at least one second rod 211, each designed capable of immobilizing the flexible web 203 at a first end edge 208, respectively at a second end edge 209. These rods 210 and 211 can adopt different forms. They are preferably made each in the form of a profile bar, including a slot or a groove for accommodating the end of the flexible web 203. The holding of the latter can occur in different ways: by clamping or pinching a rod, which is then elastic, by sewing, gluing, hot sealing, heat-welding, crimping, or the like. The flexible web 203 can also be held in its recess by a complementary part having a simple shape such as a wedge or a straight rod. All these technologies are very easy to be implemented, and it is possible to equip a large-width flexible web, for example of two meters, without any particular problem. In the case of a large-size flexible web 203, it can be provided, at each of its end edges 208, 209, with a succession of rods 210, respectively 211, whereby these successive rods can be hingedly connected to each other, like tubular tent masts made of fiberglass or carbon fibers, which represent a technology particularly adapted to this case.
  • [0142]
    Advantageously, the first 210 or/and the second rod 211 also includes, at least at one end, an extraction organ, such as a ring, a hook or the like, designed capable of facilitating the removal of the la flexible web 203.
  • [0143]
    In a preferred embodiment, as can be seen in FIGS. 11 through 17, the device 201 includes a structure comprised of at least a first strip 212 and a second strip 214. At the level of the first strip 212, a first groove 213 extends in a substantially longitudinal direction D1. Likewise, at the level of the second strip 214, a second groove 215 extends in a substantially longitudinal second direction D2. This first groove 213 and this second groove 215 are each designed capable of receiving over their full length the first rod 210 or the second rod 211.
  • [0144]
    Advantageously, in the event the flexible web 203 has to be mounted in a determined direction, reverse or obverse, up or down, right or left, each groove can be designed so as to accept the cooperation with only one single type of rod, for example with a positioning guide such as a flat surface or the like, or also with a determined dimension, namely diameter, for the rod and the recess designed capable of receiving it.
  • [0145]
    The first groove 213, respectively the second groove 215, is also provided, at a first inlet end 220, respectively at a second inlet end 221, with first insertion means 216, respectively with second insertion means 217, by which the rods bearing the flexible web 203 are inserted in direction D1, respectively in the direction D2.
  • [0146]
    According to the invention, the first insertion means 216, or/and respectively said second insertion means 217 include a first channel 224 designed capable of receiving the first rod 210, respectively a second channel 225 designed capable of receiving the second rod 211, and they also include a first ramp 218, respectively a second ramp 219, designed capable of serving as a bearing surface for the flexible web 203 provided with the first rod 210 and the second rod 211.
  • [0147]
    A slot permits the flexible web 203 to come out of the first groove 213 or the second groove 215, in order to by-pass the ramp 218 or 219, as the case may be.
  • [0148]
    The first ramp 218, respectively second ramp 219, has a cross-section increasing in the direction of insertion of the rod 210 or 211, between the first entry end 220, respectively the second entry end 221, and a median zone 222 of the first groove 213, respectively a median zone 223 of the second groove 215, so as to be capable of tensioning the flexible web 203 during the insertion of the first rod 210 into the first channel 224 and of the second rod 211 into the second channel 225.
  • [0149]
    In an advantageous variant, as can be seen in FIG. 16, the first ramp 218, respectively the second ramp 219, is made out of elastic material, in order to exert on the flexible web 203, mounted resting on said ramp 218 or 219, a tensioning force.
  • [0150]
    Preferably, the first channel 224, respectively the second channel 225, extends until an end stop 207 designed capable of stopping the first rod 210, respectively the second rod 211.
  • [0151]
    The first ramp 218, respectively the second ramp 219, is preferably formed of a truncated sector with an axis parallel to the first direction D1, respectively to the second direction D2. This shape, or also the skew shape with increasing cross-section of a variant shown in FIG. 15, is, in the preferred case of an embodiment made out of plastic, capable of being injected into a simple mold.
  • [0152]
    One understands that one ramp on one side of the flexible web 203 is enough to ensure its tensioning. However, the solution in which the first groove 213 and the second groove 215 are each provided with a ramp 218, and 219 is preferred. This configuration namely permits to use strips 212 and 214 made out of lightweight materials, such as plastic materials, while having sufficient elasticity to carry out a good tensioning of the flexible web 203, even when the latter is formed of a rigid material, such as a grid.
  • [0153]
    Preferably, the first channel 224, respectively the second channel 225, is thus made out of an elastic material and has a cross-section at rest smaller than that of the first rod 210, respectively of the second rod 211, so as to exert a clamping force on the latter.
  • [0154]
    In a preferred embodiment, as can be seen in FIG. 12, the first channel 224, respectively the second channel 225, is open according to a generatrix on which rests substantially radially a first wing 226, respectively a second wing 227, made out of an elastic material and designed capable of serving as a bearing surface for the flexible web 203 and of exerting onto the latter a tensioning force. The pretension action during the insertion of the flexible web 203 into the device 201 is thus complemented with means for maintaining under tension formed by the elastic wings 226 and 227. The latter also permit to compensate for the dilatations of thermal nature or the like.
  • [0155]
    Since, in order to simplify the placing of the flexible web 203, only two sides of the latter are equipped, the device 201 can advantageously be arranged to ensure a regular tension over the whole surface, and to avoid any wrinkling effect. To this end, in a preferred embodiment, as can be seen in FIG. 17, the first channel 224, respectively the second channel 225, includes a curvature 230, respectively 231, bringing its median area closer to the intermediate surface 202 located between said first strip 212 and said second strip 214, substantially parallel to the intermediate surface 202, and namely in a plane parallel to this intermediate surface 202 when the latter is chosen flat. Thus, in the case of placing a flexible web 203 with a rectangular shape when flat, the latter is tensioned by its four corners, close to the stop zones of the rods and the insertion zones of the latter.
  • [0156]
    Likewise, the first wing 226, respectively the second wing 227, advantageously includes a curvature 230A, respectively 231A, bringing its median zone closer to the intermediate surface 202 located between said first strip 212 and said second strip 214, substantially parallel to the intermediate surface 202, and into a plane parallel to that of this intermediate surface 202 when the latter is chosen flat.
  • [0157]
    In a variant embodiment, a similar effect can be achieved acting on the cross-section or the thickness of the channels 224 and 225, or/and of the wings 226 and 227, which are thicker in the median zone, in order to obtain a tension differential between the median zone and the end zones, i.e. the stop zone and the insertion zone of each rod. Thus, the first wing 226, respectively the second wing 227, has a larger thickness in the median zone, so as to be capable of generating a tension differential between the median zone and the end zones, i.e. the stop zone and the insertion of each rod.
  • [0158]
    Preferably, the first direction D1 and the second direction D2 are straight lines. Preferably, the first direction D1 and the second direction D2 are parallel. Preferably, the intermediate surface 202 is flat.
  • [0159]
    The rods 210 and 211 can, as the case may be, be rigid or flexible.
  • [0160]
    Of course, the way of mounting can be different at both ends, whereby one of them can consist of a simple slot into which is inserted the flexible web 203, provided with stop means on this slot, such as a hem incorporating a rod or the like.
  • [0161]
    This way of mounting according to the invention permits a very simple prefabrication, at a very low cost, of a flexible web 203, and guarantees its perfect mounting onto a building structure, with a very easy and efficient tensioning.
  • [0162]
    It is thus possible, at a very low cost, to successively arrange, from the outside to the inside of the building, substantially parallel to each other so as to be able to delimit air-circulation conduits, several flexible webs 203 each having one or several particular functionalities: external appearance of the building, perforated first receiver 50, second receiver 51, condenser 110, thermal exchange means 28, energy accumulating means 29, reflecting means 30, insulating means 31.
  • [0163]
    Flexible webs 203 and rigid structures, for example photovoltaic panels forming the second receiver 5 can also be conjugated. Photovoltaic cells are present on the market on a flexible support, and can be arranged on unwinders-rewinders in order to be unfolded on request for producing electric energy. However, the present supports do not permit all curvatures, and the present supports cannot be tensioned for adapting them to a particular deformed shape.
  • [0164]
    In a very simple version of frontage or renovation cladding, on the structure of the building, or on an existing cladding covering it can be overlaid commercially available boxes or shells, for example <<MD®>> shells from <<ArcelorMittal®>>, forming the second receiver 51, and at a distance from the latter can be installed, so as to form an internal channel 3, a device 201 provided with a flexible web 203 forming the perforated first receiver 50, in particular in the form of a textile including perforations or orifices for the passing through of air or/and light.
  • [0165]
    It is of course possible, in the first as well as in the second embodiment, to form several juxtaposed channels 3 delimited by intermediate webs.
  • [0166]
    In a more elaborated version, the second receiver 51 is formed of a condenser 110, in particular in its version including profiles having the shape of half water droplets 32 on its face oriented towards the outside of the building, and honeycomb profiles 37 on its face oriented towards the interior of the building.
  • [0167]
    Though the invention permits, in a particular embodiment, the design of panels easy to be handled by one man, easy to be juxtaposed and ensuring the continuity of an internal channel 3, it also permits the design of devices for positioning and tensioning flexible webs 203, and in particular over large sizes, for example over the height of a building and in one single strip. Indeed, a device 201 as described above can be adapted indifferently for the equipment of a modular hollow panel 1, or for a complete frontage or opening of a building.
  • [0168]
    In any case, it is important to adapt the cross-section S of the internal channel 3 formed between the perforated first receiver 50 and the second receiver 51 with respect to the surface S′ formed by the perforations or/and orifices of the perforated first receiver. Of course, the calculation of the load losses differs depending on whether the air is, in the internal channel 3, in free convection or in forced convection, and also depends on the other equipment installed in this internal channel 3 and on the nature of the walls of the latter. Good results are achieved with a S/S′ radio between 0.5 and 2, and preferably between 0.8 and 1.2.
  • [0169]
    Preferably, the S/S′ ratio increases with the altitude in the particular case in which a device sucking or extracting air from the channel 3 is installed in the uppermost portion of the latter with respect to the floor. One can thus act either on the cross-section S of the conduit widening as it moves up or on the cross-section S′ of the perforated first receiver 50, or on both in combination. In the event one wants to act on the cross-section S′, one can chose to butt strips with different perforation openings, or also, in a simpler and cheaper way, while keeping the same structure of the perforated receiver 50, namely a flexible web 203 upwards, but hiding part of it varying according to the altitude, for example, simply with a mask in the form of a triangular non-perforated strip overlaid on this perforated first receiver 50.
  • [0170]
    The use of flexible and removable webs in the building industry has numerous advantages: reduced cost, small mass, and therefore reduced hazard in the event of a fall on the building site, very simple preparation, small volume in wound-up form and, hence, cheap transport and lifting, very easy placing, easy removal and replacing, easy recovering and recycling.
  • [0171]
    In brief, the invention provides means for cladding a frontage or an opening of a building with a perforated first receiver 50, which is both removable and flexible. This perforated first receiver 50, in the form of a flexible web 203, is, in a preferred embodiment, removable for two reasons: the flexible web 203 is tensioned between two bearing surfaces 204 and 205, either at the level of the whole of a frontage or an opening, or at the level of a panel 1 that is an element a structure 100 of this frontage or this opening is comprised of. This flexible web 203 is, in all cases, easily removable from the recesses arranged on both sides of these bearing surfaces 204 and 205. When it is arranged at the level of a panel 1 forming a module, it benefits from the removability of the latter, and is therefore removable in two ways: either with the panel module 1 itself or out of the recesses arranged on the latter. Thus, the perforated receiver 50 can be changed from the bottom or from the top of a frontage or an opening. It can also be fixed to a frame formed by a panel 1 or applied against a panel 1, or to a frame fixed to the frontage or the opening involved.
  • [0172]
    In the version in which such a flexible web 203 is placed over the full height, or also over the full width, of a frontage or of an opening, in front of a plurality of panels 1 or cladding elements, it can be mounted through-going, if these panels or cladding elements themselves include an external surface that is for example translucent, glazed or made of polycarbonate or the like, or if they include on their external face another perforated first receiver 50. The flexible web 203 is then tensioned in an internal channel 3 formed behind this external surface the panels or the cladding elements include. It is preferable tensioned between two bearing surfaces 204 and 205 arranged at the ends of the frontage or opening to be clad.
  • [0173]
    Preferably, this first receiver 50 formed of a flexible web has solar regulation functions, so as to optimize its thermal performance. Thus, it can for example be chosen white and reflecting in summer, and black and absorbing in winter.
  • [0174]
    Advantageously, if one wants to re-use an existing cladding without removing it, or use commercially available cladding panels or boxes without any particular function, the use of another flexible web 203, mounted at a distance from the first one, to form the second receiver 51, and the internal channel 3 separating it from the first receiver 50 permits a very quick equipping at low cost, without requiring neither a scaffolding nor heavy handling material such as a crane: a simple basket is enough for placing one or several devices 201 for holding and tensioning as many flexible webs 203. The latter can then either be inserted from an upper end, dropped for their unfolding, then fixed for their tensioning at a lower end, or presented in the form of a roll 65 from the bottom of the frontage or the opening. In this case, this roll is pushed with a tool 64 permitting to present it at the level of its upper recess 66. This tool 64 can be either removable or remain integrated into the frontage, namely arranged in the side recesses the cladding structure includes, or inside guiding means 61 designed to serve as guiding means for this roll during its placing, as can be seen in FIG. 22.
  • [0175]
    In a variant embodiment, as can be seen in FIG. 23, the flexible web 203 is mounted on a deformable frame 75, constituting an alternative device 201 for fixing and tensioning a flexible web, designed capable of cooperating with side guides 61, or slides, a structure 100 of panels 1 or 69 includes, or which are overlaid on the frontage or opening of the building. In a simple version of embodiment, this deformable frame 75 includes two end reinforcements 76 each bearing one end of the flexible strip. Each of these end reinforcements 76 cooperates, at each of its ends, with a deformable side reinforcement 77. Preferably, this side reinforcement 77 includes segments 78, for example of fiberglass or carbon glass, hinged to each other, and including, at the level of each joint, springy restoring means designed capable of ensuring and maintaining the alignment of the segments 78 between each other, when the last segments 78 are pushed into this alignment position, in particular resting on the side guides 61. It is thus possible to insert into the guiding means 61 an upper end reinforcement 76, with a first segment 78 on either side, the other segments being folded onto each other and forming a bundle at the level of the operator. The latter then unfolds a second segment 78 on each side, lays it in the guide 61 in alignment with the preceding one, and so on, mounts the complete deformable frame 75, which adopts a rectangular shape when it is ready. The laying in the guide 61 of the very last segment 78 associated to the other lower end reinforcement 76 ensures the tensioning of the flexible web 203. This deformable frame 75 can, thanks to the use of lightweight tubular materials, such as those used in fishing equipment or for manufacturing antennas or masts, remain of a very small mass, in the range of one or a few kilograms, even for a large unfolded length of the flexible web 203, for example a frontage height of several floors.
  • [0176]
    In another variant embodiment, the flexible web 203 is formed of several segments, each tensioned over a deformable frame 85, designed capable of cooperating with such guides 61. This deformable frame 85, constituting another variant of the device 201 for fixing and tensioning a flexible web, includes, as can be seen in FIGS. 24 and 25, two end reinforcements 86 each bearing one end of the flexible strip 203. Each of these end reinforcements 86 cooperates, at each of its ends, with an elastically deformable side reinforcement 87. Thus, before insertion into the guides 61, a substantially rectangular structure is formed, but two sides of which are curved under the effect of the tensioning of the flexible web, which buttresses the side reinforcements 87, as can be seen in FIG. 24. When this structure is inserted into the guides 61, the latter are dimensioned so as to be capable of resting on these side reinforcements 86, in order to straighten them, which increases furthermore the tensioning of the flexible web, as can be seen in FIG. 25. It is enough to slide this structure into the guides 61 to put it in place at the desired level. In order to facilitate the removal and extraction of these structures, namely in order to change their flexible web 203, each frame 85 includes, at a first end, driving means 88, which are designed capable of cooperating with complementary driving means 89, which a second end of another frame 85 of the same type is provided with, as can be seen in FIGS. 26 and 27. The cooperation between the means 88 and 89 can occur in a hinged way, for example with a finger or catch cooperating with a bore or a complementary recess, or the like. This cooperation of the means 88 and 89 permits to form a chain, which is movable both in compression and in traction. Advantageously, the means 88 and 89 also form shoes for sliding in the guides 61. Preferably, means 88 and 89 are installed on both sides of the flexible strip 203, as can be seen in the figures.
  • [0177]
    The superposition of several flexible webs 203, as can be seen in FIG. 18, permits, on the one hand, to act on the size of the perforated surface and, on the other hand, to act on the behavior of energy reflection or absorption. It also permits to change the appearance of the frontage or opening.
  • [0178]
    It is also possible to arrange, as can be seen in the example of FIGS. 18 through 20, externally to the perforated first receiver 50, a translucent panel 60 such as a glazed, polycarbonate panel or the like. In the preferred case of a polycarbonate panel 60, the latter can advantageously be formed so as to create one or several side guiding means 61, such as grooves or the like, for guiding a flexible web 203 constituting the perforated first receiver 50. In the case of a translucent panel 60 recovering a box or a hollow panel 1 according to the example of FIG. 20, the guiding occurs by sides 67 the panel 60 then includes to enclose the panel 1 or the box on which it rests. In the preferred application of a fully modular cladding structure 100, incorporating hollow panels 1 as described above, or/and also boxes of the business, namely boxes made out of sheet material, it is advantageous to design the translucent panels 60 also in a modular form. In a particular embodiment, these panels include a first end 62 designed capable of cooperating through encasement with a second end 63, opposite the first end 62, of another panel 60 of the same type. In a cheap embodiment, the panel 60 has a trapezoidal shape, the bases of which are formed by the ends 62 and 63, as can be seen in FIG. 21. The folding of the polycarbonate according to straight edges is easy, for forming such a shape, complemented with additional folds on the skew faces 68 of the trapeze in order to form guides 61. Advantageously, a panel 60 is mounted so as to overlap the one located below it, in order to avoid the penetration of the weather features. This encasement nevertheless permits to provide an air passageway between these two panels 60, which can be advantageous in order to avoid condensation.
  • [0179]
    The example of FIG. 18 includes hollow panels 1, or/and boxes of the business 69, which include at a first end 70 bearing means 71 designed capable of cooperating with receiving means 73 a second end 72 of another box 69 or another panel 1 located above same includes. Of course, the surface 74 of these panels 1 or boxes 69, oriented towards the first environment A, can constitute a second receiver 51. It is furthermore possible to improve the thermal behavior of this surface 74 by applying a selective coating, such as black paint, surface treatment, re-facing, or the like. FIG. 18 shows the case in which the second receiver 51 is formed of a condenser 110, namely also formed of a flexible web unwound in the internal channel 3.
  • [0180]
    In the case of large-length flexible webs 203, it is advantageous to stiffen them, for example by reinforcing them with busks such as fiberglass rods or the like, regularly spaced, for example by one meter, and arranged parallel to the floor.
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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US9673750 *Jan 14, 2014Jun 6, 2017Global Solar Energy, Inc.Mounting structures for photovoltaic cells
US20140014302 *Mar 23, 2012Jan 16, 2014Matyas GutaiHeat energy system for heating or maintaining thermal balance in the interiors of buildings or building parts
US20140196769 *Jan 14, 2014Jul 17, 2014Global Solar Energy, Inc.Mounting structures for photovoltaic cells
EP2775061A1 *Mar 3, 2013Sep 10, 2014Jacques PigerreEco roof smile
WO2015149193A1 *Apr 1, 2015Oct 8, 2015Universidad De Santiago De ChileCoating for external surfaces such as building façades
Classifications
U.S. Classification165/47
International ClassificationF28F13/00
Cooperative ClassificationY02P90/50, E04F13/007, E04F13/145, F24J2002/5286, F24J2/52, F28D20/02, F24J2/34, F24J2002/4694, F24J2/28, F24J2/407, E04F13/002, Y02E10/44, F24J2/0444, Y02B10/20, Y02E10/47
European ClassificationF24J2/04B10, E04F13/00A, F24J2/40D, E04F13/00B, F24J2/34, E04F13/14H, F24J2/28, F24J2/52